Hard Water

In certain regions, town supplies or bore water will contain different concentrations of mineral substances causing scale formation. Scale is a deposit of mineral substances which forms when hard water is heated. The presence of scale in water  does not affect health.  However,  high concentrations can form a very hard layer of scale which block pipesadhere to heated surfaces, reduce heat transmission and increase the amount of energy (gas, electricity) necessary to heat water. This is a source of high maintenance and repair costs and deterioration of household appliances.

The New Zealand Driking Water Standards give a maximum hardness guideline of 200mg/Litre.

Soft: 0-17mg/Litre.

Slightly Hard: 17-60mg/Litre.

Moderately Hard: 60-120mg/Litre.

Hard: 120-180mg/Litre.

Very Hard: Above 180mg/Litre.

The PUGH scale reducer doses a small quantity of food phosphate into the water supply without modifying its calcium and magnesium content. This active ingredient in the scale reducer works as a crystallisation inhibitor. The content of phosphate left in the water is negligible in comparison with the concentration in daily food preparations. 

This process has no influence on taste or odour of the water.

Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water"). Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of limestone and chalk which are largely made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates. Hard drinking water may have moderate health benefits, but can pose critical problems hot water cylinders, dishwashers and other equipment that handle water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of foam formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters.